Sunday, May 24, 2020

Sartre’s Existentialism in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for...

Sartre’s Existentialism in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot Critics often misunderstand the quintessence of Sartre’s philosophy. Jean-Paul Sartre, in his lecture â€Å"Existentialism is Humanism,† remarks that â€Å"existence precedes essence† (2), that is, man first materializes and then searches for a purpose – an essence. Samuel Beckett, through his play Waiting for Godot, affirms Sartre’s core argument. Misinterpreting Godot, critic Edith contends that it differs fundamentally from Sartre’s philosophy; Kern acknowledges the existential elements within Godot, but argues – incorrectly – that the play is primarily about the absurdity of the human condition (Kern 47). Despite Beckett’s minimalist approach to†¦show more content†¦Lucky blurts: â€Å"Given the existence [†¦] of a personal God quaquaquaqua with white beard [†¦] who from the heights of [†¦] divine aphasia loves us dearly† (148). The â€Å"quaquaqua† in Lucky’s speech may have more meaning when seen in the context of the original French version of Godot – quoi in French means â€Å"what.† As subtle as the reference is, by repeating â€Å"what† Becket questions the existence of God. Mentioning the â€Å"white beard† is of most importance; Vladimir later learns, by way of the messenger boy, that Godot has a white beard. In a play that revolves around the nuance of language, such an apparent link must mean that Beckett intends for Godot to be a metaphor for God. The â€Å"divine aphasia† comment relates to the medical state of aphasia, in which an individual cannot speak coherently. Claiming that God has aphasia is Beckett’s way of mocking monotheism – a path that is very popular among existential philosophers and authors. Bert States argues that Beckett is â€Å"less interested in endorsing a God, or in denying his existence, than in ‘imitating’ the enigma of the God-idea† (States 55). States claims that Beckett attempts to illustrate the paradoxical question of the existence of God, and does not seek an answer. Although partially accurate – in that Beckett does endeavor to â€Å"imitate† the idea of God through the metaphorShow MoreRelatedBeckett vs Satre2361 Words   |  10 PagesCompare and contrast Sartre’s No Exit with Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. Samuel Beckett’s vision of two lowly tramps in the middle of a derelict environment can be placed in direct contrast to the claustrophobic and eternal nightmare presented by Jean-Paul Sartre , but each playwright possessed objectives for their respective audiences and each shared a valued opinion on the theories of existentialism which can be established in the plays Waiting for Godot and No Exit. Beckett introduces the audienceRead More Brendan Behan’s The Quare Fellow and Samuel Beckett Essay1845 Words   |  8 PagesBrendan Behan’s The Quare Fellow and Samuel Beckett Existential works are difficult to describe because the definition of existentialism covers a wide range of ideas and influences almost to the point of ambiguity. An easy, if not basic, approach to existentialism is to view it as a culmination of attitudes from the oppressed people of industrialization, writers and philosophers during the modern literary period, and people who were personally involved as civilians, soldiers, or rebels duringRead More Samuel Becketts Waiting for Godot as an Existentialist Play4416 Words   |  18 PagesWaiting for Godot as an Existentialist Play   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The play, Waiting For Godot, is centred around two men, Estragon and Vladimir, who are waiting for a Mr. Godot, of whom they know little. Estragon admits himself that he may never recognize Mr. Godot, Personally I wouldnt know him if I ever saw him. (p.23). Estragon also remarks, †¦ we hardly know him. (p.23), which illustrates to an audience that the identity of Mr. Godot is irrelevant, as little information is ever given throughoutRead MoreAbsurdity in Beckett, Pinter and Shakespeare4998 Words   |  20 Pagesthat covers Shakespeares Hamlet, Becketts Endgame and Pinters The Birthday Party. Absurdity in these works is at two levels which are characters absurdity and languages absurdity. Bradbrook (1986) analyzes Shakespeares works deeply that his analysis of Hamlet in Shakespeares Hamlet is excellent that he talks about the absurdity of Hamlets utterances with his uncle and with his mother. Styan (1981) devotes a complete section for Becketts and Pinters plays which can be considered

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Afro Caribbean Restaurant s Secondary Target Market

Afro-Caribbean Restaurant will provide a variety of food services targeting clients ageing between 10-55 years. 3. Geographically Tourists We will primarily target tourists from Africa, Caribbean and Asia. UK Afro-Caribbean Restaurant’s secondary target market will be the UK and Manchester’s residents. There are four types of market segmentation: a. Demographics variable b. Psychographics variable c. Behavioural variable d. Individual variable. The one I am going to choose for Afro-Caribbean Restaurant is Behavioural variable because a customer who has bought something from Afro-Caribbean Restaurant and is given a discount coupon or other sales material has witnessed behavioural segmentation. Therefore, do potential customers who†¦show more content†¦Different personal and open questions about the size of their household, the ages of their children and dietary preferences they use this data to get customers’ feedback that permitted them to do a further study about consumer segmentation on their buying behaviour coming from their lifestyle (, 2016). Differentiability is crucial for effective segmentation. Therefore, Afro-Caribbean restaurant offered diverse benefits to eatery programme based on the demographic and psychographic profile of each segment. For the segmentation to be maintained, the Afro-Caribbean target has to be homogeneous and big; therefore, it has to be in the position to group the customers into segments depending on their needs and put their buying profile in Afro-Caribbean’s database (, 2016). Afro-Caribbean restaurant concentrated on getting to the segment by all possible means because the accessibility of segment is very important in segmentation and each programme used was attractive and served the segment to make segmentation actionable (, 2016). LO2.3: In most cases companies produces different goods and services for a certain group of people or customers. Businesses can follow different targeting strategies like differentiated or selected marketing, niche/concentrationShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagestwentieth century in terms of the extent to which it has shaped the contemporary world, this marginalization is particularly pernicious and has been at times literally lethal. The unmatched abundance and accessibility of primary documents and secondary works on world history in the past 100–150 years, which are clearly evident in the citations that accompany the essays in this collection, makes this neglect all the more lamentable. Taken together, the key themes and processes that have been

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Working For Inner City Education Foundation Public Charter...

In many aspects of life, it is essential that you work with other individuals as a team. You can work in a team whether it is school, work, or your personal life. This year I started working for Inner City Education Foundation public charter schools, specifically ICEF Inglewood Elementary Academy. The school has approximately 40 staff members that were all placed together by the director of the school. There are multiple classifications at my job such as instructional assistants, teachers, office staff, intervention specialists, operations, and janitors, but we all operate as one unit. Through the five stages of team development, our team developed and continues to develop into a successful team. Forming Stage: When I first started working for the school in August, I never met any of the people who would be working at the school along with me. The first day I arrived to work I learned that the new team I was going to be a part of at ICEF Inglewood Elementary had 96% of new staff. During this time I realized the team was in the forming stage, we were all getting acquainted and oriented with each other. The team leaders aided in this stage by providing a breakfast followed by games for the whole staff. During the breakfast, making conversation I felt the feeling of uncertainty I was not sure if I would like it or fit in. After breakfast, we played games that were used as ice breakers. The icebreakers we played began to make me feel comfortable and realize I had a lot inShow MoreRelatedReaction Paper on Waiting for Superman4504 Words   |  19 PagesThe Myth of Charter Schools by Diane Ravitch From The New York Review of Books—November 11, 2010 Waiting for â€Å"Superman† a film directed by Davis Guggenheim Anthony, a fifth-grade student hoping to win a spot at the SEED charter boarding school in Washington, D.C.; from Davis Guggenheim’s documentary Waiting for ‘Superman’ Ordinarily, documentaries about education attract little attention, and seldom, if ever, reach neighborhood movie theaters. Davis Guggenheim’s Waiting for â€Å"Superman†Read MoreMy Purpose For Seeking A Doctorate Degree1506 Words   |  7 Pagestheory and research methods as it pertains to education. I particularly want to hone my research skills since I feel that the significance of gaining research skills is crucial in order to becoming a life-long learner and developing intellectual self-actualization as I prepare myself for furthering in Education. I realize the importance of gaining credibility among my future colleagues and people that I will be serving in the field. My view of Education is that of a reformist. I have a particular interestRead MoreThe Importance Of Charter School1824 Words   |  8 PagesAnother issue will an all charter school district is parent involvement. There are so many different types of parents: some take initiative and others do not. Would parents who normally do not take a notice in their child’s life take any interest in researching which charter school they would like their child to go to if the district was made solely of charter schools? William Jeynes (2009) argues that parents may not have â€Å"sufficient information about the options available to make the most prudentRead MoreThe Education Concept Of Education1746 Words   |  7 PagesEducation is the key to success, or so it is set out to be. People among all social status will correlate a â€Å"good education† with success. For the disadvantaged it is seen as an opportunity to climb the social ladder. Among the upper class, a quality educatio n is still a priority, with young people following legacies. Nowadays, a high school diploma is a basic necessity for even a middle-class job. However, what constitutes of a quality education is disputable. Within the system itself there is debateRead More The Pros and Cons of Affirmative Action Essay3458 Words   |  14 Pagesbetter solution.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Affirmative action or positive discrimination can be defined as providing advantages for people of a minority group who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against. This consists of preferential access to education, employment, health care, or social welfare. In employment, affirmative action may also be known as employment equity. Affirmative action requires that institutions increase hiring and promotion of candidates of mandated groups. (Rubenfeld, 1997Read MoreAffirmative Action: the Topic of Debate for Many Years3498 Words   |  14 Pagesis a better solution. Affirmative action or positive discrimination can be defined as providing advantages for people of a minority group who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against. This consists of preferential access to education, employment, health care, or social welfare. In employment, affirmative action may also be known as employment equity. Affirmative action requires that institutions increase hiring and promotion of candidates of mandated groups. (Rubenfeld, 1997Read MoreAll About Peace Education13195 Words   |  53 PagesALL ABOUT PEACE EDUCATION *Dr. Ajay Kumar Attri, Lecturer; Department of Education, MLSM College ; Sundernagar; Mandi (H.P) âž ¢ INTRODUCTION: Education shall be directed toward the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.Read MoreEducation System in England7734 Words   |  31 PagesThe education system in England [pic] Pre-school education The pre-school sector includes a patchwork quilt of places provided by state, voluntary and private nurseries, childminders and playgroups - available to children between the ages of two and five. At the end of 2000 there were 937,000 pre-school places available - 264,000 in day nurseries, 353,000 in playgroups and other settings and 320,000 with childminders. The government has promised to improve the quality of education available forRead MorePublic Health Paper12265 Words   |  50 PagesFrom past to present; the changing focus of public health by Maria Joyce Key sections include: Environment, infectious disease, locating public health, the enlightenment, the Sanitarians, national provision of services, the inception of the National Health Service, ‘crisis in health’, The New Right, The Third Way, new public health. Public health, the new ideology may be taken to mean the promotion of healthy lifestyles linked to behaviour and individual responsibility supported by governmentRead MoreThe Main Problems of Economic Development of Kazakhstans Regions11951 Words   |  48 PagesThe economic framework of local governance The economic foundations of the local government of the Republic of Kazakhstan are: - Municipal property; - Local finance; - Property in state ownership and transferred to the management of local governments. The material and financial resources, which are the economic foundation of local government, determine in fact the efficiency of local government. The economic foundation for local governance is a set of legal norms that regulate social relations

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

PTLLS Unit 2 - 1707 Words

1.1 Summarise learning and teaching strategies used in own specialism All the teaching I have carried out recently is in relation to people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour. Some is classroom based, such as Risk and Conflict Management, Autism and behaviour interventions relating to an individual service user. I also used to teach PRICE (Protecting Rights In a Caring Environment). This is a physical intervention course which is practical and physical with no desks; therefore the teaching and learning strategies are different for this course. It tends to use a style more like EDIP (Explain, Demonstrate, Imitate and Practice). Allen’s (1919) four-step method, as cited in Gravells (2012, p.95) describes that it starts†¦show more content†¦I will need to include learners in agreeing their individual learning plan so ensure it meets their needs. Ensuring the learners help write the ground rules will ensure everyone feels included. Also using an ice breaker assists learners to feel part of a group. I will need to consider the resources I use to ensure they meet the needs of the learners. It will be important to use a wide variety of resources when I am teaching, the main reasons for this is to accommodate different learning styles but also to help learner stimulation and interaction. Part of inclusive learning is for me to be approachable and accessible, so the students feel comfortable to talk to me. 2.2 Explain how to select resources that meet the needs of learners Resources need to be appropriate for the learning outcomes and suitable for the learner’s needs or to be able to adapt it. A tutor also needs to consider if a resource is at the correct level of ability. Resources also need to be current and credible and of high quality. Tutors also need to consider their own ability to use the equipment and there may be budgetary constraints to consider. All resources need to meet the session objectives. If we consider the resource of YouTube videos within PowerPoint, some advantages to its use are:- †¢ It has a visual impact †¢ There is a wide range and choice †¢ It can be up to date †¢ It is easily remembered by many learners †¢ It is accessible However,Show MoreRelatedPTLLS Overview1077 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (PTLLS) at Level 4. Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (PTLLS) at Level 4 Total credit value (at Level 4) 12 Total GLH 4 x units (each @ 12 GLHs) = 48 Units being run and assessed: Group Unit title Level Credit value GLH A Roles and responsibilities and relationships in lifelong learning 4 3 12 Learning outcomes: The learner will Assessment Criteria: The learner can 1. Understand own role and responsibilities in lifelong learningRead MoreEducation and Lifelong Learning1329 Words   |  6 PagesCity and Guilds 6302 Award in Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector Unit 001 Roles, Responsibilities and Relationships in Lifelong Learning Assessment Task 1 By Contents Task 1 Assignment Page 3 References Page 7 1. Understand own role and responsibilities in the lifelong learning. (1.1) Having been requested to produce a brief on my roles in teaching and professional values whist teaching in this role. I have to deal with variety of personnelRead MoreUnderstanding Inclusive Learning and Teaching in Lifelong Learning811 Words   |  4 PagesForm 2 Assessment front sheet and feedback record PTLLS Level 3/4 Unit No: | | Learner name: | | Enrolment number: | | Date issued: | | Date submitted: | | I confirm that the evidence for this unit is authentic and a true representation of my own work. Learner signature: | | Date: | | Feedback: Continue on a separate sheet if necessary, see overleaf Tutor/Assessor/Marker and IQA’s signatures (IQA if sampled) must appear on the following page. Read MoreDtlls Unit 3 Delivering Lifelong Learning – Level 3 Essay1538 Words   |  7 PagesUnit 3 Delivering Lifelong Learning – Level 3 Assessment Criteria Units – 1.1 – 1.3, 2.1 – 2.2, 3.1-3.2, 4.1-4.2 amp; 5.1-5.3 Assignment 1 Research and produce a checklist and evaluate your current learning and teaching environment in relation to it for – a) Inclusive learning good practice b) Opportunities for learners to practise Literacy, Numeracy and ICT skills. Inclusive Learning Inclusive learning is as Wilson (2009) states is â€Å"about creating interesting, varied and inspiringRead MoreEnabling Learning and Assessment Essay2590 Words   |  11 Pagescompleted in a much smaller scale throughout the year in the form of portfolio evidence. The course that I teach is a yearlong course for level 1 students wanting to be in the public services (police, royal marines etc). The entire course consists of 7 units which range from map reading to team building and physical fitness. The evidence that we use in these portfolios is also varied including witness statements, photographic evidence and short answer questions on worksheets. Due to the varied methodsRead MorePlanning and Enabling Learning Dtlls Essay2011 Words   |  9 PagesDTLLS Unit 002 Planning and Enabling Learning Assignment 2.1 Theory John Smith Contents Page Methodology of Research and Introduction 3 Findings for points A to D 4 Prà ©cis of findings for points A to D 12 Bibliography 14 Methodology of research This report will look at the following points: A. Negotiating with learners, e.g. initial assessment, agreeing goals and actions. B. Inclusive learning, e.g. the use of different deliveryRead MoreResponsibilities And Responsibilities Of A Lifelong Learning2594 Words   |  11 Pagesresponsibilities in lifelong learning sector is - we should always follow the relevant code of practice, key aspect of legislation regulatory requirements. We should provide the resources and equipment those requirements of teaching professions. The aim of this unit is to develop our understanding of the roles and responsibilities of a teacher in lifelong learning and the relationship between different professionals in lifelong learning. It includes responsibility for maintaining a safe and supportive learningRead MoreUnderstanding Inclusive Learning and Teaching in Lifelong Learning3108 Words   |  13 Pages* Form 2 Assessment front sheet and feedback record PTLLS Level 3 This form is mandatory Theory Assessment No: | Unit 002 – Understanding Inclusive Learning and Teaching in Lifelong Learning | Learner name: | Jessica Bell | Enrolment number: | | Date issued: | 23/10/2012 | Date submitted : | 06/11/2012 | I confirm that the evidence for this unit is authentic and a true representation of my own work. Learner Signature †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Date †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Read MoreLevel 4 Award in Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (Ptlls - City Guilds 6302)4915 Words   |  20 Pages[pic] Level 4 Award in Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (PTLLS - City Guilds 6302) [pic] 5th – 7th September 2012 10th ,12th and 13th December 2012 18th – 20th March 2013 [pic] Assignment 1: Unit 008 (level 4) [pic] Roles, responsibilities and relationships in lifelong learning Brief for Assignment 1: unit 008 (level 4): Roles, responsibilities and relationships in lifelong learning Use the poster template to write an overview ofRead MoreArinze Nwagwu Essay3828 Words   |  16 Pagesï » ¿ DTLLS UNIT 7 Assignment 1 2 Curriculum Development for Inclusive Practice ARINZE NWAGWU Content Pages The contexts in which education and training are provided 3 - 6 In the lifelong learning sector Theories, Principles and Models of Curriculum Design on Inclusive learning and 7- 11 Teaching in our learning environment. References 12 1. Understand contexts in which education and

Marketing Communications Free Essays

string(97) " When carrying out internal communication, there are several factors that have to be considered\." Introduction Some of the aspects that characterize the present-day business environment include its increasing dynamism, volatility and uncertainty. This poses challenges for businesses that are rigid and not well prepared to change with the transformations in the market (Williamson et al., 2013). We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing Communications or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the other hand, it creates opportunities for companies that have the capability of implementing necessary changes that will make them remain relevant to their target markets. Some of the main areas that have been changing in organizations in recent years include management and communication styles, organizational structures, approaches to marketing and the utilization of technology in different departments within organizations (Shimp Andrews, 2013; Diefenbach Todnem, 2012). This paper intends to address several issues that relate to the changes and developments taking place in the business environment. It presents an analysis or opportunities and threats that companies like Yahoo and Google face in relation to the rapid technological advancements. It also addresses the appropriate communication approaches that companies should use to facilitate internal and external communication and the communication mix that is used at Apple to market itself to its target clients. In relation to this, the report presents an analysis of a communication campaign used by Nike, a leading sports’ equipment and apparel manufactures in the UK, to establish how effective it is in attaining its marketing objectives. Opportunities and Threats for Google and Yahoo in regard to rapid technological changes Google and Yahoo are some of the well renowned internet-based companies that offer search engine and e-mail services to a wide range of users. Both companies also deal in software development. Based on the services and products offered by these companies, they are directly affected by technological advancements, especially in the ICT sector (Segev Ahituv, 2010). The opportunities and threats that these advancements expose the companies to are discussed in this section. Opportunities There are several opportunities presented to these companies as a result of technological advancement. One of these is that it provides a wide range of avenues through which the companies can communicate with their clients and vice versa (Hundal Grover, 2012). It also provides increased avenues through which the companies can market their products. Technological advancements in the ICT sector across the globe have also led to an increase in internet accessibility. For Yahoo and Google, an increase in internet accessibility provides an opportunity for them to earn more revenue through advertisements (Shih et al., 2013). This is because they are among the most visited websites internationally. Google is ranked as the most visited website, while Yahoo is ranked the fourth (Alexa, 2014). Being business oriented, technological advancement will also make it possible for them to market their products and services to a wider market base through strategic marketing communication strategies. It also provides an opportunity for them to launch e-commerce strategies, which are cost-effective for the company and convenient for clients. Among the advancements that have taken place is the development and increased use of smartphones (Persaud Azhar, 2012). Given that both companies deal in software development, it provides an opportunity for them to create revenue from developing applications that can be used on these devices. Google has effectively taken advantage of this advancement and has developed the Android operating system (Gandhewar Sheikh, 2011). The fact that its operating system is compatible with many mobile devices like manufactured by different companies like Samsung and LG increases its usability. With the growing number of global populations using smartphones, the company has a lot to benefit as Android is among the top smartphone operating systems (Butler, 2011). Threats With the increase in the technological advancements in the market, these companies are also exposed to a range of threats (Lovelock Wirtz, 2011). One of these is the increase in competition from other companies that provide the same products and services. With internet companies like Twitter and Facebook having a growing number of users, they provide a threat for Yahoo and Google in terms advertising revenues (Lagrosen Josefsson, 2011). There is also a possibility of other internet based companies coming up to provide stiffer competition. In the software business, Google’s Android operating system faces a threat from Apple’s iOS, if it decides to adjust it and make it compatible to other devices (Butler, 2011). Other technology companies may also come up with more innovative products and better marketing approaches than Google and Yahoo, which might reduce their current market shares. Another threat that is associated with technological advancements is posed to the human resources of these companies. Employees face the risk of losing jobs because a wide range of jobs that were initially handled by people can now be done even better by machines (Lovelock Wirtz, 2011). Even though this might come as a relief for these companies as they cut salary costs, the fact that these advancements may increase unemployment undermines the social responsibility efforts that these companies may have. The increase in technological advancements also increases the levels of cyber crime. Even though the systems of Yahoo and Google may be secure from this risk, given that they have measures in place to address this issue, clients who have opened email accounts with them may not be as secure. Hackers may gain access to their emails, obtain their personal information and use it against them. Even though such cases might occur as a result of low email security measures by the user, some of them tend to blame the email hosting companies like Yahoo or Google as being the reasons for their predicaments. As a result, this ruins the reputation of these companies. Communication at Google Internal and external communication Communication is among the aspects of a business that are paramount to its success. Internal communication refers to the passing of messages or information within the organization. This could be within the same department or interdepartmental communication (Wright, 2012). External communication refers to the communication that goes on between the organization and external stakeholders, who mainly comprise of customers. When carrying out internal communication, there are several factors that have to be considered. You read "Marketing Communications" in category "Essay examples" For instance, the messages ought to be confidential to avoid access from external parties. In this case, Google has a company intranet, which consists of an internal message board and email system (Goodman, 2006). This can only be accessed by company employees who have been allocated usernames and passwords. These channels of communications have been highly secured, making it impossible for an external party to access the information or messages passed. Internal communication in organizations also has to be effective and quick. For Google, this is facilitated by the fact that it has a horizontal communication structure. According to Butler (2010), horizontal or lateral communication is the free flow of information or messages across different functional groups in the organization. Employees and managers across all departments and employee levels at Google interact freely without any hierarchical boundaries (The Financial Express, 2005). This approach to communication enhances cooperation among employees and also quickens the process of resolving conflict. On the contrary, it reduces the authority of departmental heads in the organization. External communication is meant to promote products or services offered by the company, or to advertise its clients’ products to a wide range of customers (Wright, 2012). It can also be meant to engage with customers with the aim of making them feel like they are part of the organization. Depending on the aim that is to be met by external communication, there are several measures that can be used. One of the most effective tools that the company uses to accomplish this is through its website. Based on the fact that its website is the most visited in the world, there is a high level of surety that it will communicate to a wide audience (Segev Ahituv, 2010). Even with the high number of visits on the company’s website, many customers who may be targeted by the messages might not be among the website visitors. Thus, another alternative option that the company uses is through sending e-mail messages directed to certain clients that could be interested in the goods or servi ces of the company. In 2012, the company spent over $231 million in marketing its products, which include the Google+ social media platform, Gmail and the Google Chrome web browser (Efrati, 2012). Market communication theories relevant to the communication strategy There are several marketing communication theories that can be considered as being relevant to the communication strategies utilized at Google. One of these is the heightened appreciation model (Dahlen et al., 2010). It is based on the fact that companies need to carry out consumer market research to establish the key attribute that attracts consumers to a brand. Market communication strategies are then designed to link the identified attributes of the product or service to the brand (Fill Hughes, 2013). For instance, in the advertisement of its Google+ service, the company is aware of the need for people to interact and share instant messages and videos on social media. Google then links this need in the market to Google+, encouraging more clients to subscribe. Another model that can be used to represent the market communication strategies at Google is the advertising exposure model. This model suggests that advertisement objectives can only be met if it created five effects to the target consumer (Fill Hughes, 2013). These effects are; creation of awareness, conveying messages about the positive attributes of the products, generation of feelings among the target audiences towards the brand, creating a brand personality and triggering purchase intentions (Dahlen et al., 2010). This model also relates to the advertisement efforts that have been implemented by Google as it markets a wider range of its products. The AIDA model can also be used in explaining marketing communication. It is regarded as one of the oldest and most popular market communication models. This model states that there is a hierarchy of events that have to occur for a marketing communication strategy to be termed as having been successful. In chronological order, these are attention, interest, desire, and action. After the attention of the target clients have been drawn, marketers are required to raise their interest in the products or services being advertised through highlighting their advantages. After this has been done a sense of desire is created in the clients by providing them with the assurance that the products or services will satisfy their needs. This will trigger action from the buyer, which is demonstrated by making the purchase. At Google, this model has been widely used, especially when it spent approximately 231 million to market its products in 2012 (Efrati, 2012). However, this model has received crit icism for being out-dated and irrelevant for the present market environment. The Communication Mix of Apple The communication mix is referred to as the specific approaches that are used by companies to promote their services or products to their target customers. There are five elements that make up a communication mix. These are discounts and promotions, public relations, direct marketing communication, advertising and personal selling (Wright, 2012). At Apple, the marketing mix element that is mainly used is direct marketing communication. This approach involves interactive communication with the aim of seeking a certain response from the target audiences. With reference to the recent development at Apple when it was preparing to acquire PrimeSense, an Israeli 3D chip developer, it was vital for the company to inform its external and internal stakeholders or the impending acquisition (Velazco, 2013). Some of the approaches that the company could use to pass this information include direct email communication, social media interaction with its clients and through its website. The company has maintained a large customer data base that contains the contacts of its customers and other Apple stakeholders (Wright, 2012). This also makes it easy for the company to pass such vital information directly to its customers and other external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders, who mainly comprise of employees, can be formally informed through circulation of a memo or posting the message on internal communication platforms. Importance of Cross-functional communication Cross-functional communication is applicable within the organization. It is referred to as the communication among people from different departments or functional groups in the organization (Shimp Andrews, 2013). The importance of cross-functional communication that is beneficial to Apple Inc is the fact that it enhances cooperation within the organization as different teams work towards attaining the same organizational goal. Encouraging cross functional communication also promotes awareness of whatever is taking place across the entire organization, which eliminates cases of ignorance of misinformation. Some of the challenges that are associated with ineffective cross-functional communication in organizations include the failure for members of certain departments in the organization to appreciate or recognise the contributions made by other departments (Diefenbach Todnem, 2012). This may result to destructive rivalry that may affect the attainment of organizational goals adversel y. In a scenario where Apple might plan to acquire another company, cross-functional communication enables all the departments to be equally ready for any changes or additional responsibilities that may arise after the acquisition (Diefenbach Todnem, 2012). Analysis of an integrated Marketing communications campaign Marketing communication campaigns are defined as strategies that are implemented by organizations with the aim of increasing market awareness about their products or services. This is usually with the aim of increasing the purchasing intentions of the target audience. According to (Bergemann Bonatti, 2011), ideal integrated marketing communication strategies effectively coordinate all product promotional messages to ensure that they are all consistent. This section presents a market communication campaign that was launched by Nike, a company that deals in the manufacture and distribution of sports equipment (Nike, 2014). The marketing communication campaign was implemented with the aim of increasing the company’s market share in the UK to extend its lead. This is as a result of the stiff competition from Adidas (Thomasson, 2014). The campaign intended to make use of all the available avenues to increase awareness of the UK market about the brand. It also intended to market the new products that it had launched and seen as appropriate for the target market. These mainly included sports shoes. This marketing communications campaign targeted a wide range of customers, who ranged from 18 to 50 years of age (Nike, 2014). Factors that make the campaign successful There are several aspects of the campaign that make this campaign successful in attaining its originally set goals. One of these is the wide range of media outlets were used to pass the message to the audience, basing on the fact that media consumption varies among individuals within different age groups (Bergemann Bonatti, 2011). Another factor that made the communication campaign successful was the fact that it highlighted the favourable attributes of the company’s products, which included the affordable prices and the comfort of the shoes. Referring to the heightened appreciation model, this is an effective trigger of purchase intentions among the target audiences (Fill Hughes, 2013). Given that this marketing communication campaign was strategically designed, the only aspect that could undermine its capability to attain the intended goals is the launch of a similar or better campaign by its key competitors. Media Used Different forms of media were used in this campaign to increase the size of the audience that could be reached. These were classified as print, broadcast and interactive media. Print media comprised of newspapers and magazines. These targeted different clients. For instance, ads that were placed in fashion magazines targeted the fashion enthusiasts who could need Nike’s products to work out. Broadcast media basically comprise of radio and TV (Lamb et al., 2008). Different market segments were targeted by advertising on a wide range of TV and radio channels, and at different times. Given that communication campaigns in print and broadcast media are one way, they were designed to contain as much information as possible to answer any questions that clients could have regarding the product (Bergemann Bonatti, 2011). Interactive media comprised of all the media outlets that could allow the company and its clients to engage real-time with each other (Correa et al., 2010). These comprised of social networking, mobile and via the company’s blog. As opposed to print and broadcast media platforms, interactive media provided capabilities for the company and target customers to engage constructively (Kim Ko, 2012). Some of the major social media platforms that are ideal for such form of communication between companies and customers include Facebook, Twitter and Google+. Despite the advantage of real-time engagement that social media presents for companies, information on a flaw of negative attribute on the product spreads very fast (Correa et al., 2010). Conclusion This paper has covered a wide range of issues that relate to the present-day business environment. In regard to the technological advancements that are taking place in the present-day business environment, Google and Yahoo have been used as cases to discuss the opportunities and threats that these advancements present to the company. The paper has also presented an overview of internal and external communication in Google, which has incorporates that factors that are considered and the channels that are used in the communication. Different marketing communication theories have also been presented. These include the heightened appreciation model and the advertising exposure model. In the paper, different organizations have been used in the explanation of various concepts presented. Based on the arguments that have been presented in the paper, companies have to ensure that they effectively communicate with their customers and also encourage cross-functional communication so as to succe ed in the current hypercompetitive business environment. Failure to implement an appropriate communication mix will not only have adverse effects on the marketing efforts of the company, but will also hamper internal operations. For future research, the marketing communication theories and models should be analyzed more broadly so as to establish their relevance to different businesses. References Adler, G., 2013. Management Communication. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Alexa, 2014. Web company Information: Top Sites. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 April 2014]. Bergemann, D. Bonatti, A., 2011. Targeting in advertising markets: implications for offline versus online media. The RAND Journal of Economics, 42(3), pp.417-43. Butler, C.J., 2010. Internal and lateral communication in strategic alliance decision making. Management Decision, 48(5), pp.698-712. Butler, M., 2011. Android: changing the mobile landscape.Pervasive Computing. IEEE, 10(1), pp.4-7. Correa, T., Hinsley, A.W. De Zuniga, H.G., 2010. Who interacts on the Web?: The intersection of users’ personality and social media use. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), pp.247-53. Dahlen, M., Lange, ?F. Smith, ?T., 2010. Marketing Communications: A Brand Narrative Approach. California: John Wiley Sons. Diefenbach, T. Todnem, R., 2012. Reinventing Hierarchy and Bureaucracy: From the Bureau to Network Organizations. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing. Efrati, A., 2012. Once Shunning Ad Promos, Google Now Flaunts Itself. The Wall Street Journal, 27 March. [Accessed 7 April 2014]. Fill, C. Hughes, G?., 2013. CIM Coursebook Marketing Communications. New Jersey: Routledge. Gandhewar, N. Sheikh, R., 2011. Google Android: An Emerging Software Platform For Mobile Devices. International Journal on Computer Science Engineering, pp.12-17. Goodman, J., 2006. Intranet Strategy. London: The Ark Group. Haigh, P., 2010. Social Network Websites: Their Benefits and Risks. London: Optimus Education eBooks. Hundal, B.S. Grover, S., 2012. Consumer Responsiveness towards SMS Advertisements and its Effectiveness in the Present Scenario. Journal of Marketing Communication, 7(3), pp.34-39. Lagrosen, S. Josefsson, P., 2011. Social media marketing as an entrepreneurial learning process. International Journal of Technology Marketing, 6(4), pp.331-40. Lovelock, C. Wirtz, J., 2011. Services Marketing: People, Technology, Strategy. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Moore, I., 2005. Does Your Marketing Sell?: The Secret of Effective Marketing Communications. Boston: Nicholas Brealey Pub. Nike, 2014. About Nike Inc. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 April 2014]. Persaud, A. Azhar, I., 2012. Innovative mobile marketing via smartphones: are consumers readyMarketing Intelligence Planning, 30(4), pp.418-43. Petit, C., Dubois, C., Harand, A. Quazzotti, S., 2011. A new, innovative and marketable IP diagnosis to evaluate, qualify and find insights for the development of SMEs IP practices and use, based on the AIDA approach. World Patent Information, 33(1), pp.42-50. Plunkett, J.W., 2009. Plunkett’s E-Commerce and Internet Business Almanac 2009. Texas: Plunkett Research. Schultz, F., Utz, S. Goritz, A., 2011. Is the medium the messagePerceptions of and reactions to crisis communication via twitter, blogs and traditional media. Public relations review, 37(1), pp.20-27. Segev, E. Ahituv, N., 2010. Popular Searches in Google and Yahoo!: A â€Å"Digital Divide† in Information UsesThe Information Society, 26(1), pp.17-37. Shih, B.Y., Chen, C.Y. Chen, Z.S., 2013. An empirical study of an internet marketing strategy for search engine optimization.. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing Service Industries, 23(6), pp.528-40. Shimp, T. Andrews, J.C., 2013. Advertising promotion and other aspects of integrated marketing communications. Mason: Cengage Learning. The Financial Express, 2005. Creative motivation at Google Inc. The Financial Express, 14 May. Thomasson, E., 2014. Adidas sees hit from emerging market currency swings. Reuters, 5 March. Velazco, C., 2013. Done Deal: Apple Confirms It Acquired Israeli 3D Sensor Company PrimeSense. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 7 April 2014]. Williamson, D., Cooke, P. Jenkins, W., 2013. Strategic Management and Business Analysis. New Jersey: Routledge. Wright, M., 2012. Gower Handbook of Internal Communication. Burlington: Gower Publishing. How to cite Marketing Communications, Essay examples

Responsibilities Towards State In Australiaâ€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Responsibilities Towards State In Australia? Answer: Introducation Rights are given so much weight nowadays. However one can easily forget that there is also another side to this equation which is related to the responsibilities towards the State in Australia. In accordance with the study of Runzo and Co-authors (2014), the actual meaning of right is that getting liberty from interference by government or any other individual. ndividual rights can be termed as freedom of each, and every individual gets to continue their life and goals with no interference from government or any other individual. Individual right is related to their life, freedom and pursue happiness as reported by the Australian government. However, these rights come with responsibilities towards community and state. Community refers to group of individuals having common morals and interests. Community n be described as "wholeness incorporating diversity" and might be inclusive of individuals with various values, ages, incomes and backgrounds. An individual can become a member of two or more communities; such as becoming part of geographic residence and member of workplace. State responsibilitiesare the duties and responsibilities of an individual to the society and are inclusive of support, value and contribution. It is a concept that goes beyond thoughts and performing as a person having common beliefs regarding shared interests and life. Voting in elections is a fundamental responsibility of a community. In this aspect major conflict is between responsibility ofEmbracing Australians Values and human rights provided to the citizens in Australia especially in terms of freedom of speech provided by Australian Government. From generations, this right is considered as given liberty which the most cherished among values underpinning Australia. Among all the most appreciated liberty is freedom of expression (Edwards, 2013). Although free speech is a severe and indisputable conception, its process could difficult and solid. However, this principle is mixture of black and white which makes it grey. It is because; freedom of speech cannot be considered as a total right. As it holds a variety of responsibilities and is restricted by legal restrictions, morals and principled considerations. According to the ICCPR Article 19, each and every individual holds the right to make opinions without any interference (French, 2015). Each and every person has right to liberty expressing, this right is inclusive of liberty to take, accept and pass on information and thoughts about anything, despite of frontiers, either by verbally or in written manner or printed or by any other medium of their wish. The attainment of right by an individual provided in paragraph 2 of this cited article holds with it exceptional responsibilities and duties. For that reason it can be subjected to some restrictions, however only in such cases, like legally provided or are mandatory: In context with the rights of others; The welfare of society or by public command, health or values (Barry and Sage-Jacobson). For a better understanding of this conflict following two cases can be considered which are related to free speech judgments which have been handled by a high court of Australia. In this aspect, the first case is Monis v The Queen. In this case, the defendant had sent letters to the acquaintances of soldiers who were killed in the war in Afghanistan. The letters condemned Australias association in military disagreement (Mearns, 2015). The defendant was held for allegedly breachingSec 471.12 of theCriminal Code Act 1995, as it was an offence for using postal services to threat or annoy someone or case a crime. In this aspect, defendant had a responsibility to respect the State norms and have not sent such letter which were alleged to offend other individuals. This was the clear case of misuse of provided right as this right is supposed to be used with the responsibility. Another case related to this aspect is of Attorney-General (SA) v Corporation of the City of Adelaide. This case involved several people speaking in a community in Adelaide. They allegedly breached the law local government by-law which makes illegal is a person talks, campaigns, harangue or else seeking for religious basis. However, this was vaguer as this was mere a discussion on which right was not misused to the severe extent. In both the cases, the decision depends entirely on is the laws were considered unacceptable for contravening animplied constitutional right to freedom of political communication. Further, in both cases, the court made a decision that the laws were applicable. Cited cases later appeared in the High Court for the final decision regarding Lex Wottenearly in 2013. In this case; extraordinary parole conditions put up by Wotten included a restriction on communication with journalists, and the general public was following hisimmersion in the 2004 Palm Island riot. The High Court defended the validity of parole condition (Gale, 2016). These Decisions shows that how weak the adopted right to freedom is. It can be said that dependency on security against laws that limit a persons right to liberty of speech. However, resolution of this dispute is mainly based on the entire situation and primarily on the intention of the defendant. Legal disputes related to freedom of speech can be resolved by both legal mechanism and non legal mechanisms. In the legal mechanism, the case is resolved through do the internal and external reviews in which statuary administrative and judicial bodies are involved, which are Royal commissions, Australian Human Rights Commission, Independent Commission against Corruption (Roberts, 2013). This resolution is a complete formal process which is cost and time-consuming. However, this is compulsory if the matter is severe like in the given three case examples. On the other hand, the non-legal mechanism includes trade unions, parliament members, media, non government associations and interest groups which act as a mediator and try to solve the situation without involving in legal proceedings (Merrils, 2017). The best example of this mechanism is alternative dispute resolution in which arbitrator or mediator is appointed who is the unbiased person who looks after the case in order to provide viable decision which is acceptable by both parties. Further, if concerned parties are not satisfied with the decision, then they can consider legal mechanisms References Barry, L. and Sage-Jacobson, S., 2015. Human Rights, Older People and Decision Making in Australia. Edwards, S.M., 2013. The genocide and terror of witchcraft accusation, persecution and related violence: an emergency situation for international human rights and domestic law.Int. Fam. Law,2013, pp.322-30. French, R., 2015, September. The fine art of giving and taking offence. InJudicial Review: Selected Conference Papers: Journal of the Judicial Commission of New South Wales, The(Vol. 13, No. 1, p. 21). Judicial Commission of NSW. Gale, P., 2016. Rights, responsibilities, and resistance: Legal discourse and intervention legislation in the Northern Territory in Australia.Semiotica,2016(209), pp.167-185. Mearns, C.A., 2015.Monis v The Queen: what the High Court's split on gender lines reveals about the discrimination at the heart of the implied freedom of political communication(Doctoral dissertation, Australian National University). Merrills, J., 2017.International dispute settlement. Cambridge university press. Roberts, S., 2013.Order and dispute: an introduction to legal anthropology. Quid Pro Books. Runzo, J., Martin, N.M. and Sharma, A., 2014.Human rights and responsibilities in the world religions. Oneworld Publications.

Monday, May 4, 2020

Acid Rain Cause And Effects And Issues Essay Example For Students

Acid Rain: Cause And Effects And Issues Essay Introduction Acid rain has become an environmental concern of global importancewithin the last decade. With the increasing environmental awareness of theunhealthy condition of our planet earth the concern about acid rain hasnot lessened. In brief, acid rain is rain with pH values of less than 5.6. Whendealing with acid rain one must study and understand the process of makingSulfuric acid. In this project we will take an in depth look into theproduction of sulfuric acid, some of its uses and the effects of it as apollutant in our environment. Sulfuric Acid Industry in Ontario Among the many plants in Ontario where sulfuric acid is produced, thereare three major plant locations that should be noted on account of theirgreater size. These are: (1) Inco. Sudbury, (2) Noranda Mines Ltd. Welland, and (3) Sulfide Ontario There are a number of factors which govern the location of eachmanufacturing plant. Some of these factors that have to be considered whendeciding the location of a Sulfuric Acid plant are:a. Whether there is ready access to raw materials;b. Whether the location is close to major transportation routes;c.Whether there is a suitable work force in the area for plant construction and operation;d.Whether there is sufficient energy resources readily available;e. Whether or not the chemical plant can carry out its operation without any unacceptable damage to the environment. Listed above are the basic deciding factors that govern the location ofa plant. The following will explain in greater detail why these factorsshould be considered. 1) Raw Materials The plant needs to be close to the raw materials that are involved in the production of sulfuric acid such as sulfur, lead, copper, zinc sulfides, etc.. 2) Transportation A manufacturer must consider proximity to transpor- tation routes and the location of both the source of raw materials and the market for the product. The raw materials have to be transported to the plant, and the final product must be transported to the customer or distributor. Economic pros and cons must also be thought about. For example, must sulfuric plants are located near the market because it costs more to transport sulfuric acid than the main raw materials, sulfur. Elaborate commission proof container are required for the transportation of sulfuric acid while sulfur can be much more easily transported by truck or railway car. 3) Human Resources For a sulfuric acid plant to operate, a large work force will obviously be required. The plant must employ chemists, technicians, administrators, computer operators, and people in sales and marketing. A large number of workers will also be required for the daily operation of the plant. A work force of this diversity is therefore likely to be found only near major centres of population. 4) Energy Demands Large amounts of energy will also be required for the production of many industrial chemicals. Thus, proximity to a plentiful supply of energy is often a determining factor in deciding the plants location. 5) Environmental Concerns Most importantly, however, concerns about the environment must be carefully taken into consideration. The chemical reaction of changing sulfur and other substances to sulfuric acid results in the formation of other substances like sulfur dioxide. This causes acid rain. Therefore, there is a big problem about sulfuric plants causing damage to our environment as the plant is a source of sulfur emission leading to that of acid rain. 6) Water Supplies Still another factor is the closeness of the location of the plants to water supplies as many manufacturing plants use water for cooling purposes. In addition to these factors, these questions must also be answered: Is land available near the proposed site at a reasonable cost? Is the climate of the area suitable? Are the general living conditions in the area suitable for the people involved who will be relocating in the area? Is there any suggestions offered by governments to locate in a particular region? The final decision on where the sulfuric acid plant really involves acareful examination and a compromise among all of the factors that havebeen discussed above. Producing Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is produced by two principal processes the chamberprocess and the contact process. The contact process is the current process being used to producesulfuric acid. In the contact process, a purified dry gas mixturecontaining 7-10% sulfur dioxide and 11-14% oxygen is passed through apreheater to a steel reactor containing a platinum or vanadium peroxidecatalyst. The catalyst promotes the oxidation of sulfur dioxide totrioxide. This then reacts with water to produce sulfuric acid. Inpractice, sulfur trioxide reacts not with pure water but with recycledsulfuric acid.The reactions are: 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 SO3 + H2O H2SO4 The product of the contact plants is 98-100% acid. This can either bediluted to lower concentrations or made stronger with sulfur trioxide toyield oleums. For the process, the sources of sulfur dioxide may beproduced from pure sulfur, from pyrite, recovered from smelter operationsor by oxidation of hydrogen sulfide recovered from the purification ofwater gas, refinery gas, natural gas and other fuels. Battery Acid Industry Many industries depend on sulfuric acid. Among these industries is thebattery acid industry. The electric battery or cell produces power by means of a chemicalreaction. A battery can be primary or secondary. All batteries, primary orsecondary, work as a result of a chemical reaction. This reaction producesan electric current because the atoms of which chemical elements are made,are held together by electrical forces when they react to form compounds. A battery cell consists of three basic parts; a positively chargedelectrode, called the cathode, a negatively charged electrode, called theanode, and a chemical substance, called an electrolyte, in which theelectrodes are immersed. In either a wet or dry cell, sufficient liquidmust be present to allow the chemical reactions to take place. Electricity is generated in cells because when any of these chemicalsubstances is dissolved in water , its molecules break up and becomeelectrically charged ions. Sulfuric acid is a good example. Sulfuric acid,H2SO4, has molecules of which consist of two atoms of hydrogen, one ofsulfur and four oxygen. When dissolved in water, the molecules split intothree parts, the two atoms of hydrogen separate and in the process eachloses an electron, becoming a positively charged ion (H+). The sulfur atomand the four atoms of oxygen remain together as a sulfate group (SO4), andacquire the two electrons lost by the hydrogen atoms, thus becomingnegatively charged (SO4). These groups can combine with others ofopposite charge to form other compounds. The lead-acid cell uses sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. Thelead-acid storage battery is the most common secondary battery used today,and is typical of those used in automobiles. The following will describeboth the charging and discharging phase of the lead-storage battery and howsulfuric acid, as the electrolyte, is used in the process. The leadstorage battery consists of two electrodes or plates, which are made oflead and lead peroxide and are immersed in an electrolytic solution ofsulfuric acid. The lead is the anode and the lead peroxide is the cathode. When the battery is used, both electrodes are converted to lead sulfate bythe following process. At the sulfate ion that is present in the solutionfrom the sulfuric acid. At the cathode, meanwhile, the lead peroxideaccepts two electrons and releases the oxygen; lead oxide is formed first,and then lead joins the sulfate ion to form lead sulfate. At the sametime, four hydrogen ions released from the acid join the oxygen releasedfrom the lead peroxide to form water. When all the sulfuric acid is usedup, the battery is discharged produces no current. The battery can berecharged by passing the current through it in the opposite direction. Anyalization of Pearl from the 'Scarlet Letter' Essay Each of these processes can reduce impurities in your water supply andmany machines as suggested by the above examples combine severalapproaches. c) BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE KEY EVENTS IN THE U.S.-CANADA RELATIONS WITH RESPECT TO CLEANING UP THE GREAT LAKES:1972: the U.S. chairman of the International JointCommission, announced to study to determine the pollutingeffects on the Great Lakes urban development and agriculturalland use, find remedies and estimate cleanup costs;Canadaand the United States signed a Great Lakes Quality Agreement. 1974: Canadians say the cleanup financed by Washingtonis already running far behind the scheduleenvisaged when the agreement was signed. 1978: Canada and the United States agreed to the goalof zero discharge of pollution.1987: thegoal made in 1978 is made again, this means bothcountries agreed to work toward completelyeliminating persistent toxic pollutants, not justthe amount being discharged by industry; Mulroneyalso proposed that the U.S. slash industrialsulfide and nitrogen oxide emissions by halfbefore 1994. The Canada-U.S. International Joint Commission meets every two years todiscuss pollution and other issues concerning the Great Lakes, At present,they are making a ten-year headline for the Great Lakes to be cleaned up. BibliographyEncyclopediasCollier Encyclopedia, volume 3, U.S.A.: MacMillanEducational Company, New York, 1984. Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemical Analysis, volume 18,U.S.A.: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 1973. Science Technology Illustrated: The World Around U.S.,Volume 3, U.S.A: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc, 1984. ArticlesCleaning Up By Cleaning Up Newsweek: Feb. 27, 1989. Deadline Urged for Cleanup of Great Lakes, Toronto Star,Oct. 14, 1989. Great Afflictions of the Great Lakes, The Globe and Mail,Oct. 14, 1989. Great Lakes Pollution as a Political Issue, The Globe andMail, Oct. 16, 1989. N.Y. Accused of Overlooking Pollution in Lake, TorontoStar, Feb. 26, 1990. Pact On Great Lakes Cleanup Not Working, Greenpeace Says,Globe and mail, July 19, 1989. The Clean Water Industry Grows on Fear, Uncertainty,Toronto Star, Jan. 28, 1990. Information Scarce On Great Lakes Chemicals, The Globe andMail, Oct. 14, 1989. OthersCountdown Acid Rain, Facts: Ministry of the Environment,1989. Sanderson, Kimberly, Acid Forming Emissions, Canada:Environment Council of Edmonton, Alberta, 1984. The New How It Works, volume 2, Westport Connecticut; H.S. Stuttman Inc., 1987. Weller, Phil., Acid Rain: Silent Crisis, Canada: Between theLines, 1980. TITRATION LABORATORYPurpose: 1) to prepare 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. 2) to standardize the NaOH solution in part 1, usingpotassium hydrogen phthalate. 3)to determine the unknown molarity of a H2SO4 solution usingstandardized solution. Part 1 Prepare 0.1 mol/L NaOH solutionObservations:Data:mass of NaOH + paper tray = 4.58 gmass of paper tray = 3.46 gmass of NaOH pellets= 1.12 gCalculation:Number of mole of NaOH = mass of NaOH pellets = 1.12g = 0.028mol g. mol mass of NaOH40gConclusion:Questions:1. When the NaOH pellets are left in the atmosphere, it reacts with the gases and absorbs water (moisture) in the air making it unable to neutralize too well. 2. The gram mole mass of a substance is the mass in gram of 1 mol of that substance. 3. The solution of NaOH must be standardized in order to accurately calculate the concentration of the acid. Part 2 Standardize the NaOH solution prepared in Part 1, usingpotassium hydrogen phthlateObservations:Data:mass of vial + KpH = 22.19gmass of vial + KpH aftertransfer to 1st flask= 22.19gmass of vial + KpH aftertransfer to 2nd flask= 21.93gmass of vial + KpH after flask?mass of KpH? volume of NaOH ? conc. of NaOH1? .12 ?1.2 mL ?0.000712? .14 ?1.5 mL ?0.00103flask 1To calculate the concentration of NaOH (mol/L) the number of moles ofKpH have to be calculated. No. of mol of KpH = 0.12 204g/mol= 5.9 x 10-4 molThe ratio of KpH to NaOH is 1:1Therefore, the no. of NaOH = 5.9 x 10-4mol. The equation being used is: KpH + NaOH KHC8H3NaO4+H2OThefollowing equation is used to calculate the concentration of NaOH. c = nn=number of mol = 5.9 x 10-4molvv=volume = 1.2 x 10-3 c = 5.9 x 10-4molc=concentration = ?1.2 x 10-3L c = 0.492 mol/LTherefore, the NaOH solution in Flask 1 is 0.492 mol/L. flask 2No. of mol of KpH = 0.14204g/mol= 6.9 x 10-4 molThe ratio of KpH to NaOH is 1:1Therefore, the no. of NaOH = 6.9 x 10-4mol. c = nn=number of mol = 6.9 x 10-4molvv=volume = 1.5 x 10-3 c = 6.9 x 10-4molc=concentration = ?1.5 x 10-3L c = 0.46 mol/LTherefore, the NaOH solution in Flask 2 is 0.46 mol/L. The average molarity of NaOH solution = flask 1 + flask 2 2= 0.492 + 0.46 mol/L 2= 0.476 mol/LConclusions:Questions:1. The equation for the neutralization of potassium hydrogen phthalate solution with NaOH solution is: NaOH + KHC8H4O4 KHC8H3O4Na + H2O2. The primary error in this titration process is that it is very easy to go over the endpoint. We can improve this by being very careful when letting the NaOH solution into the acidic solution. Especially when we see that the pink colour is starting to stay we should allow only part drops of the NaOH solution into the acidic solution to make certain that we do not go over the endpoint. 3. The endpoint of a titration is the point at which the number of moles of hydroxide ion added is the same as the number of moles of hydrogen ion originally present in the flask. The difference between the stoichiometric point and endpoint of a reaction is that the stoichiometric point is exactly the point at which the number of moles of hydroxide ion is equal to the number of moles of hydrogen ion while the endpoint is usually a little over this point when the solution has turned pink. 4. Phenolphthalein was chosen as the indicator of this titration because phenolphthalein is a dye that is colourless in acidic solutions but shows-up bright red or pink in basic solutions. 5. An indicator is a compound that detects the presence of acids and bases by changing to different colours. Part 3 To determine the unknown molarity of a H2SO4 solution usingstandardized NaOH solution. Observations: Volume of known ? Volume of known?Molarity ofsurfuric acid soln(mL)? conc. of NaOH(mL) ?sulfuric acid 1.25 mL?4.5 mL (0.0045L) ?3.915 x 10-6 2.25 mL?4.8 mL (0.0048L) ?4.176 x 10-6 To find the molarity of unknown sulfuric acid solution: Equation of reaction:2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O General equation solve:Ca Va = Cb Vba = acidnanbb = base Flask 1 For NaOH (base):v = 4.5 x 10-3 L c = 0.476 mol/L n = ?n = v c= 4.5 x 10-3 x 0.476= 2.1 x 10-3 mol NaOH For H2SO4 (acid):v = 0.025 Ln = ?c = ?#mol of H2SO4 = 2.1 x 10-3 x 1 H2SO4 2NaOH= 1.05 x 10-3 Solving the equation:Ca Va = Cb VbnanbCa x 0.025 L = 0.476 mol/L x 0.0045 L1.05 x 10-32.1 x 10-3 molCa = 0.476 x 0.0045 x 1.05 x 10-3 2.1 x 10-3 x 0.025Ca = 2.25 x 10-65.25 x 10-5Ca = 0.0429 mol/L Flask 2Ca x 0.025 L = 0.476 mol/L x 0.0048 L1.14 x 10-32.28 x 10-3Ca = 0.476 x 0.0048 x 1.14 x 10-32.28 x 10-3 x 0.025Ca = 0.0457 mol/L The average molarity of H2SO4 solution = flask 1 + flask 2 2= 0.0429 + 0.0457 2= 0.0443 mol/L